World heritage and ‘that wall’.

Why, when science gets it right, do our leaders for political reasons get it wrong?

In democracies we choose our leaders. Our attitudes are revealed by our choices.

World heritage sites are established because there is something amazing, remarkable, irreplaceable that stirs our capacity to wonder. We can study and learn from them. A case in point. In Australia, is the Great Barrier Reef. A coal ship corridor for 50 kilometres is being established from Abbot Point on the Queensland coast. Our reef can be seen from space! Global warming is having its impact but political decisions like this intensify the problem. David Attenborough has made clear how destructive our political actions have been. We need to be custodians of these extraordinary sites. Slowly or swiftly, we take from the world a living wonder.

In America, the following is an example of swift destructive decision making.

This example comes from Mark Sumner of the Daily Kos staff, Sunday, October 6th 2019 – 3:27 AM Australian Central Daylight Time.

Trump is destroying an irreplaceable world treasure in an effort to speed up building his ‘wall’

Portions of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument were already crossed by a border fence in 2017 – but now they are destroyed. RSS

“Since 1976, Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument has also been the Organ Pipe Cactus Biosphere Reserve, a world heritage site sanctioned by UNESCO as the most pristine examples of intact Sonoran Desert ecosystem. The otherworldly beauty of the monument brings visitors who come to gawk at the towering forms and hike the gravel-strewn trails. It also attracts scientists from around the globe who study the inhabitants of the desert and their adaptation to this incredible environment.

Mark Sumner calls this decision “one of the greatest acts of ecological vandalism in a century—carried out in an effort to hurry construction of the President’s border fence.”

The author makes clear why he thinks the President of the United States has chosen to move into sites of national, and international significance. It appears to be, this way, he can avoid “potential lawsuits from private landowners that could tie up progress for months.” The President, it also appears, is expecting “the EPA and Interior Department to ignore every law and regulation concerning construction, environmental impact studies, and protection of archaeological artifacts.” It is important to realise that some of the areas targeted already had an existing barrier. The Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument had such a barrier set up between 2012 and 2017. Mark Sumner reminds his readers.

“Even after miles of border fence were erected in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument between 2012 and 2017, the striking beauty of this Sonoran Desert jewel was preserved. There is no question that original fence was destructive. Following the border as closely as possible meant that not only were saguaro and other cactus that had grown over a space of centuries removed to provide highly questionable ‘security,’ but the ranges of rare and endangered desert animals were permanently altered. Disturbing as it was at the time, that initial fence was placed with some care, often without disturbing ancient, towering examples of cactus within just a few feet of the fence. Images from 2017 show a relatively low fence that, while it certainly doesn’t vanish into the landscape, is also not a jarring disruption of the otherwise gorgeous scenery.”

“Now those ranges, and cactus older than the nation, are simply being bulldozed aside as [he] carves a scar across the desert. That original fence was in no sense attractive, and the damage it caused to the site was real. But compared to what [he] is doing in an effort to claim miles for his ‘wall,’ it’s a paper cut.”

The image shows a section of the border fence as it existed in 2017.

Now, in 2019, this.
Saguaro cactus being bulldozed in advance of building his border ‘wall’.

“In video shot by Kevin Dahl, senior program manager for the National Parks Conservation Association, bulldozers can be seen cutting through the Saguaro and heaping them like rubbish.

These cactus can obtain a weight of tons, and an age of centuries. Even the more modest-sized examples being bulldozed in these images likely have an age of over 100 years, as growth comes slowly in the water-starved desert. 

In September, the defense department claimed that saguaro in the path of the barrier construction would be ‘relocated’ to other sections of the monument. But Dahl’s video reveals that this is a flat-out lie. The rare and iconic cactus are instead shown being pushed along by bulldozer and piled into heaps with other ripped-up plants. 

These areas of desert will not be repaired in the lifetime of anyone now looking at their events. Or their children’s lifetime. Or their children’s. Even if [his] pointless, useless, ugly barrier were ripped down tomorrow, it wouldn’t begin to repair the damage that’s underway — damage that is expected to stretch 78 miles across the ecological fragile park.”

“Sorry, world.”  This is the way Mark Sumner finishes his article.

In Australia, Judith Wright, one of our finest poets, warned us about the dangers to the Reef in the 1970s. Rachel Carson tried to alert America to the terrible impact of thoughtless or deliberate political decisions. Aided by global warming, in Australia, despite the efforts of those who work tirelessly to conserve this world heritage site we are allowing this to go on. Its condition now is considered ‘very poor’. The decision to establish that coal ship corridor was made in 2017.

I thought this example of how swiftly the damage can be done worth sharing. Democracies do not have the excuse of those living under totalitarian regimes. We can find out. But how often is it – when such extraordinary natural and often equally important cultural world heritage sites are not close to us – that we, the citizens of our democratic nations, wake up too late? What is getting in the way? We need to be thinking about that.

Add Writing to the Warwick story.

Robyn Williams and the ABC’s Radio National  Science Show are at the University of Warwick near Coventry for the British Festival of the British Science Association [BSA]. He is exploring the range of scientific work at Warwick Go to these links.


UK’s Warwick University – collaborative projects and filling skills gaps

Robyn takes us to its gene banks, preserving specific vegetable seeds for future diversity. He rides in an automated ‘pod’ able to avoid anything coming ahead. That ‘pod’ takes blind people to the beach at Brighton. There is reference to the collaboration with Monash. There is reference to the Flinders University’s Tonsley site in Adelaide where an automated vehicle is being developed. There is confirmation through a machine seeing inside, beyond the X ray capacity, of the discovery of cultural material of the First Nations in the Northern Territory and the fact that it is 65,000 years old. We learn how babies are encouraged to speak. Wake them to the world around them.

President of the British Science Festival, Professor Alice Roberts, in charge of Public Engagement in Science at the University of Birmingham, considers the future.

Alice Roberts – how to approach humanity’s huge challenges

But add this to your understanding of the work of the University of Warwick.

The University of Warwick has had, for a long time, commitment to writing.

They quote this poet, called the ‘Mozart of Poetry . . but with something of the fury of Beethoven’ by those who awarded her the Nobel Prize for Literature.

See the http://www.szymborska.org.pl/aid-found.html  the Szymborska Foundation.

“Whatever inspiration is, it’s born from

a continuous “I don’t know.”

Wislawa Szymborska

The Warwick Writing  Program was established by Professor David Morley. Elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature, as ‘A National Teaching Fellow, Professor Morley teaches on Warwick’s Writing Programme, and is a recent winner of The Ted Hughes Award for New Work in Poetry for his collection The Invisible Gift, and The Cholmondeley Award for achievement in poetry from The Society of Authors.

‘This Warwick University module is an option solely for Year Two students taking English Literature and Creative Writing. The module offers a practical, imaginative and robust progression to the Year 3 Personal Writing Project in which you work one-to-one with a tutor. It is vital that applicants have read and written poetry and possess experience of writing workshops. Workshops are two hours long. Former students of this module have gone on to establish significant reputations as poets, performers, film-makers, spoken word artists, editors, conceptual artists, and publishers.’ The capacity to connect with sciences needs the humanities.

Where’s the third ‘f’? We have flora and fauna. How about fungi!

Thank you. Australia’s national public broadcaster, through ABC RN’s Science Show, Saturday September 14th 2019 is bringing us the information we need to develop the knowledge we must have to make connections for the future.

A panel of mycologists, experts in the study of fungi, were in Adelaide at WOMADelaide in 2019, in our stunning Botanic Park that has celebrated the best of the World of Music, the Arts and Dance for decades. Here we had the vital connections in STEAM, not the, divisive STEM separated from HASS. With it came recognition of Aboriginal science. See my blog ‘Deadly Science and Dark Emu’*

I listened to Alison Pouliot of the ANU, author of The Allure of Fungi, published by the CSIRO. She posed the question that has become the title of this blog. The panellists are scientists sharing their knowledge with all at WOMADelaide. Here’s its title. You, too, can listen to their informative, engaging story now on  The Science Show.

Image: Is it time to look a little more closely at fungi for solutions to some of the world’s problems? (Pixabay: adege) Link to the larger image.

Magic Mushrooms: Can their mycelia give us safer plastic replacements? “Flora, fauna… and fungi! Our expert panellists, from Australia, USA and the UK, made clear at WOMADelaide they believe it is time for more attention to be paid to that third ‘F’, especially given fungi is a kingdom of species just like plants and animals. Fungi’s uses are staggering, from life-saving drugs to new building materials, greener plastics to helping grow new ears or organs.” Many farmers, we heard, are interested. They want to move away from industrialized agriculture.

In Tasmania, mycelia are being connected with architecture. Bio- bricks! Mycelia are the vegetative part of a fungus, consisting of a network of fine white filaments. (hyphae). [The role of fungi in trees is in Judi Dench’s documentary.]

Interconnections are needed all the time. Why are we so slow in making changes? Many corporations make billions from fossil fuels. How many keep their profits in tax havens? They lobby governments. They keep us in the dark. America’s President has just provided $100 million to the Brazilian government. The US Secretary of State says it’s to fund private approaches in their Amazon Forest.

Trees need fungi: fungi need trees. We need the bio diversity they foster.

The Many Ways of Diversity: the Same and Not the Same, is the title of the address given by Nobel Laureate Professor Roald Hoffmann when he received the Inaugural Primo Levi Prize in Germany for his work connecting the sciences, particularly chemistry, with the humanities in 2017. See my first blog. Thank you Roald Hoffmann* Roald Hoffmann contributed poetry and prose to Challenging the Divide: Approaches to Science and Poetry, launched by Robyn Williams at the South Australian State Library in 2010.

This soaring story.

Excitement at the World Science Festival in Brisbane – Australia in Space.

This important story about the past, present and the future is brought to listeners across this continent by our wonderful public ABC Radio National Science Show.

First comes the history from Kerrie Dougherty, author of Australia in Space: A History of a Nation’s Involvement, published by ATF Press, August 2017. “The exploration of space was seen as the greatest adventure of the Twentieth Century, while in the Twenty First Century space-based services have become an integral part of our daily lives. Although it is not often recognised, Australia has had its part to play in setting the world on the road to the stars and was one of the earliest nations to launch its own satellite. Today, the country is one of the largest users of space-based services.”

Is it Anthony Murfett, Deputy Head of the Australian Space Agency, with its headquarters in Adelaide, who recognises the 65,000 years of the study of the stars by the first astronomers? That recognition is a sign of how far Australia has come. He does not name Dark Sparklers, by Hugh Cairns and Bill Yidumduma Harney published by Hugh Cairns, reprinted 2004. However, the story of the First Songline of the Wardaman clan, west of Katherine, for example in its New Year connection with ‘the brightest and loveliest star blaze from the northerly horizon’, brings to us the significance of the galaxy in their calendar. See their sky maps [pp 78-95].

Design and presentation Tiffany Meek and Hugh Cairns.

In Brisbane the panel of our astronomers and space scientists, interviewed by Robyn Williams, moves beyond the military and defence roles of space and satellites. Some see us able to deal with the debris in space, recycling space material. Others see us being able to show from space where the flooding waters are flowing to help those below to respond more effectively as they face the movement and speed of the water. They see its role for a continent of this size in dealing with the impact of climate change. Others see all the commercial possibilities. I listen with awe. Not an ounce of short-term thinking here.

They bring in the work of Professor Veena Sahajwallah of UNSW. In my previous blog ‘Imagination has no boundaries’* her innovative work is described. They value her ‘micro lab’ and ‘micro factory’ for what she is doing with waste material. Possibilities for young astronauts appear in the story of eager young Sophie.

Professor Christine Charles, Head of the Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory at the Australian National University in Canberra, ACT, wants us to remember we must have a planet on which to build our propulsion systems to send our probes into outer space, or our plans to put people on the Moon and have more than the current six living in space – or wherever else our imagination can take us.

At the same time, she wants us to have the guts to take risks.

The Federal government has set up the Australian Space Agency in Adelaide which has all its history of connections through Woomera, including the WRESAT launch in 1967. Now with this Agency, Australia joins all the other national space agencies.

Once more, thank you to our public Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Image: Is Australia ready to play a significant role in the emerging global space industry, or will it fall behind? (Pixabay:PIRO4D)

Australia in Space: Our Story in the Stars – World Science Festival Brisbane

Imagination has no boundaries.

Are we moving to the bottom line – economy and environment and society? Back in 1960, Vance Packard first published The Waste Makers, [Penguin paper-back. 1963]. He dedicated his book to his Mother and Father ‘who have never confused the possession of goods with the good life.’ He warned about ‘ever-mounting consumption’, ‘the vanishing resources’, the ‘changing American character and the commercialization of American life.’

He had earlier written The Hidden Persuaders and The Status Seekers. We were getting the warnings throughout the 1960s, Not just warnings about these ‘waste makers’, but also about the deliberately built-in obsolescence. Now, with the latest digital devices, we are still encouraged to be the first with the new. It is even cleverer now. Governments have been slow to act but since some poorer countries no longer accept our rubbish, Australia’s Prime Minister is saying we need to care about plastic. Our wonderful ABC has brought us ‘The War on Waste’ for two years.

Veena Sahajwalla of the University of New South Wales: Credit UNSW

Many Australians recall our Australian Broadcasting Corporation program. The Inventors’! One of the judges on the panel was Professor Veena Sahajwalla. Remember all those Australian men and women bringing their inventions for consideration! Think of their creativity, solving problems, offering ideas for consideration.

Why have I made ‘Imagination has no boundaries’ the heading for this Sciences and Humanities post? Professor Sahajwalla’s passion has been to reduce waste. She has been called a ‘Waste Warrior’. The following story about her team’s work comes from Australia’s Science Channel.  See  About Us Publishers Series Sponsors Search

A technology that recycles waste into clothing and building products could be the answer to Australia’s crippling waste crisis.

According to a UNSW researcher, the technology is there to reach our waste management goals: Credit: Abdul Raheem Mohamed / EyeEm

Veena Sahajwalla, who invented ‘green steel’ technology that diverts millions of vehicle tyres from landfill, says her newer Microfactory ™ technology is a ready-made answer to deal with the nation’s current waste and recycling crisis.

According to a UNSW researcher, a ready-made answer to our waste and recycling crisis is available in the form of her Microfactory ™ technology.

“The technology doesn’t only address the waste issue, it’s also good for the economy.” And, I suggest, good for the environment and for us as a society!

“Sahajwalla commended the federal and state governments for agreeing to establish a timetable to ban the export of waste plastic, paper, glass and tyres, while building Australia’s capacity to generate high value recycled commodities, demand and capability in industry. “The heads of governments in Australia tasked Environment Ministers to advise on a proposed timetable and response strategy following consultation with industry and other stakeholders, and the Prime Minister says the timetable would be left up to the States, but I can’t help thinking that scientifically developed methods such as our Microfactory ™ technology is ready to go from lab scale to commercial scale to accelerate the COAG goals,” she explains.

“Importantly, this type of microrecycling science not only addresses the waste and environmental issues, but creates a whole new circular economy where materials are kept in use for as long as possible and can help local manufacturers create new products and items from reformed waste.”

Glass and textiles are turned into clothing and building products

“Veena and her team of scientists, engineers and materials experts through their microrecycling science have invented processes that can reform waste items like glass and textiles, including clothing, into flat ceramic building products and can also transform electronic waste into valuable plastic filament for 3D printing and metal alloys.”

“This coordinated decision to ban the exporting of our recyclable materials to countries that are increasingly resistant to taking our waste is a real game-changer in terms of enabling the spread of home-grown research innovations for the benefit of local industries,” Veena says.

“For example, we can take almost all waste plastic and turn it into a new, highly valuable commodity, 3D plastic filament, which is now mostly imported from overseas.”

“We can deploy this Microfactory ™ technology in rural and regional areas where waste is stockpiled and bring local industries and councils together to create new solutions”.

Professor Sahajwalla goes further: We should accept overseas selected waste.

“In fact, we should accept from overseas selected waste resources that contain valuable materials so that we could transform them into niche materials and in turn export them by using our Microfactory ™ technology to deliver clean and sustainable materials to the world.” Here’s imagination and, with it, evidence of capability for us to grasp.

Nicholas Fisk, UNSW Deputy Vice Chancellor (Research), says, “It’s time to rethink attitudes to all of the materials we discard and instead see them as renewable resources if we want to reduce our reliance on finite resources with major impact on the environment.”“This UNSW innovation promises to boost local manufacturers by providing novel opportunities through new supply chains.”

Some of the products made using the Microfactory technology. Credit: UNSW

From the Australian Academy of Science, the short citation read: “Veena Sahajwalla is an internationally recognised materials scientist, engineer and innovator who is revolutionising recycling science. . . . As Director of the Sustainable Materials Research and Technology Centre at UNSW, she has built a world-class research hub. Sahajwalla leads a highly innovative research program that fosters innovation and promotes collaboration with industry to ensure that scientific advances in sustainable materials and processes are readily translated into commercially-viable environmental solutions.”

Vance Packard ended his book, thus, in 1960, If adversity must be the prod for us to take a larger interest in such matters, it might still represent a gain. [p 302]

Reviewing The Waste Makers, in 1963, The Times wrote: ‘ [It] should be made compulsory prison reading for every politician, every economist, every advertising agent, and every industrialist who attempts to equate a high standard of living with the purchase of the unnecessary, the inferior and the short-lived article.’

For 2019, click on Australia’s Science Channel Smartphone Recycling in Australia

The KKK took my colours away

This is the title of a work of art by Jim Thalassoudis of Australia, done in lead white oil paint, wood and glass, 2017. It is impressive. To see it you will have to go to Chromatopia: An Illustrated History of Colour by David Coles, with photographs by Adrian Lander, published by Thames and Hudson, [p 217]. You’ll know the artist’s intention when you face the work that produced this challenging title. He is challenging white supremacy and all that it represents. But why does this work of art belong here with the Sciences and Humanities? This is a gift from Dr. Adriana Dutkiewicz, Senior Lecturer in Geological Science in the University of Sydney.

On the surface, it looks as if the book belongs on the HASS – Humanities, Arts, Social Sciences – side of that divide put in place by the reviewers in the 2015 Australian National Curriculum.

But David Coles takes me to minerals. I learn that Lead White is ‘the greatest and the cruellest of the whites’. What! Something made can be cruel? I discover it is “basic lead carbonate, formed by the reaction of lead with vapours of vinegar (acetic acid) and carbon dioxide.”

I have been taken across that artificial, troublesome divide into the world of the sciences, technologies, engineering and mathematics. In this case, it’s chemistry: one of the most important pigments for artists for 2,000 years. But lead is toxic.

David Coles gives me further information. “This is not such an issue for artists whose contact with it in paint is limited, but for workers in lead white factories the symptoms of poisoning include headaches, memory loss, abdominal pain and eventually death. In the late 19th century safer synthetic whites superseded lead white. Zinc white was its first competitor and then, in the 20th century, the introduction of titanium white almost completely replaced lead white’s commercial use.” [p 39]

Our children and their parents know how toxic it is because factories, like lead smelters for example, have been built too near homes, too near schools, with too little regard for its deadly impact on the brain: that is because of little concern on the technological side for the human side.

There we have it. Too much separation. Too little connection.

And we are back with a previous blog – the Periodic Table – science AND the humanities

But, back to Chromatopia. Such a marvellous, beautifully produced, holistic history of colour. Each pigment, each colour has a page, with a magnificent facing photograph. Look up ‘woad’. Look up ‘indigo’. See the connections that cross millennia. The ancient Egyptians first developed synthetic colours. Look up ‘mummy brown’. Look up ‘brazilwood’ – a country named after a wood! Consider graphite. Consider Mars colours, since Mars is on our space-based agenda.

But don’t forget.

Lead is still widely used for car batteries, pigments, ammunition, cable sheathing, weights for lifting, weight belts for diving, lead crystal glass, radiation protection and in some solders. It is often used to store corrosive liquids.

www.rsc.org/periodic-table/element/82/lead

Lead – Element information, properties and uses | Periodic Table

In South Australia secondary school students today might not, since the official 2015 curriculum does not encourage it, have the chance early in their secondary schooling to make connections across disciplines. They did at Marion High School, a ‘lighthouse school’ for South Australia destroyed by a Liberal government in 1996. Students began the process through a theme in Year 9. In Year 10 ‘Bridging’ was student-directed. In Year 11 Independent Study took them in all kinds of directions to the surprise of teachers and the delight of the Inventors group that came to see their work displayed in the Durney Resources Library. In 2019 the Year 12 research project that encourages these connections is seen too often as an infringement of subject time. That attitude results in the perpetuation of subjects as ‘silos’. That earlier initial approach depends upon the attitudes and skills of teachers.

Look what we miss by the segregation of disciplines in this thoughtless, divisive way. Effective learning values intersections*, crosses boundaries.

For fun, I looked up the saying, “Get the lead out’ and found the following:

Etymologists do agree it began to be commonly used in the United States beginning in the early 20th century, often as the slightly longer “get the lead out of your pants”. The idea is simply that the person whom you are telling this is moving slowly as if they are weighted down with lead, so “getting the lead out” would make them move faster.” Today, how do we get the lead out, find the less toxic alternative? Artists were able to do it.

What sparked her imagination? A footnote on a page!

Dr Robyn Arianrhod of Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, is a writer and mathematician. Her passion for both literature and mathematics reflects her love of language. That love is evident in “Einstein’s Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics.” Published in 2003, it was reprinted three times in 2004.

But the reason she is here is the evidence of that love in the opening of her wonderful book for the general reader like me. Her opening chapter heading is A Seamless Intertwining. She opens with David Malouf’s Remembering Babylon, a novel whose protagonist, Gemmy, loses his language. ‘Gemmy had been washed up on an Australian shore, a ‘scrawny. Illiterate, thirteen-year old.’ This is a very important novel for Australians. Language and identity go together. We will go on from this initial connection to her love of mathematics, an inclusive love.

Robyn Arianrhod does not fear connections.

In Einstein’s Heroes, Robyn Arianrhod takes us into a world many of us have lost, the world of mathematics. She takes us to the people who inspired Einstein. One is Michael Faraday. I love him. Look him up.  Another is James Clerk Maxwell, who was also a poet. [A poem of his is in Challenging the Divide: Approaches to Science and Poetry.] And, writing of the elegance of Maxwell’s electromagnetic equation – a quatrain – [p 227], Robyn Arianrhod draws a comparison with another quatrain, this time by William Blake with the opening line, ‘To see a world in a grain of sand’. She brings them together and, in the concluding paragraph of that chapter, returns to what Maxwell’s ‘quatrain’ gave us: ‘the blueprint for light and energy and therefore life itself.’ [p 228]. We are told we’ll ‘scream Eureka when we read it’. And I did. I was understanding so much. Not all but Robyn was expanding my horizon.

And here was the ‘seamless intertwining’ I am so often looking for.

Why should girls be told to give up love of language, art, history, music, to cross that abysmal divide to STEM?  Why not take that love with them to enhance their understanding in their chosen fields of discovery? It will save us from the danger of narrow minds. Let them have literature and all it offers as well as what the sciences, technologies, engineering and mathematics offer. Let there be STEAM.  Robyn Arianrhod has room for Malouf, Blake and Shakespeare. She brings in Othello.

Robyn Arianrhod’s next book was Seduced by Logic: Emilie du Chatelet, Mary Somerville and the Newtonian Revolution, published in 2011. A reviewer wrote: ‘from the acclaimed author of Einstein’s Heroes comes the gripping story of two of the most glamorous and influential women of mathematics.’ [ I apologise about the accents – can’t find them on my machine!]

Why is Robyn Arianrhod in my Sciences and Humanities blog today?

She has been interviewed by Robyn Williams of our wonderful ABC’s Radio National Science Show, Saturday, August 2nd 2019, about what has now ‘sparked her imagination’. And here it is Thomas Harriot: A Life in Science.

Robyn Arianrhod’s imagination refuses to be limited by acronyms.

Our world today needs women who refuse to be boxed in by this or that acronym. And we need teachers in all disciplines at all levels of education, who refuse to have the minds and hearts of their students boxed, stunted in fact, to this or that ‘silo’ or by this or that barrier or divide. Why are we in this global climate mess? For too many in powerful positions it is very profitable still. For others it is a system of schooling that separated too many women from supposedly ‘male’ subjects, limiting their focus. And then there’s religious bigotry. The children are crying out because adults are undermining their future.

Robyn Arianrhod’s curiosity about a footnote led her to Thomas Harriot, this Tudor Elizabethan polymath, the English equivalent of Galileo and Kepler, the precursor to Newton. And a linguist! A navigator. He voyaged to the New World. [See the information about him in the International Year of Astronomy 2009.]

Thanks to the time, effort, research, her willingness to go where the evidence and her love of mathematics has taken her, Robyn Arianrhod is taking me to science in Tudor England. With her love of mathematics has gone her love of literature and language. She spoke eagerly to Robyn Williams about Harriot’s discovery of binary numbers and what his working documents have given her about his approach.

Oxford University Press has published her book. Thomas Harriot: A Life in Science. Robyn Arianrhod is taking me into the heart of London, with all its ‘intersections’,* the political as well as scientific ramifications of its 16th /17th century world and, as a result, I meet a human being, among other human beings, not an abstraction. So, here’s to the humanities AND sciences, technologies, engineering, mathematics because it’s the humanities that remind us of the essential human connections in everything we decide to do.

Thomas Harriot – forgotten Elizabethan scientist comes to life