And a fifth F? What could it be?

It could be forests again. Earth Day is coming on April 22nd 2021. It could be forests beneath the sea – the role of sea kelp. It could be the future. In democracies, voters hold the power. How we decide affects how we proceed. I hate the phrase ‘push their buttons’. We sound like automata, not thinking human beings able to take in the consequences of our decisions. Are we going to go on as we have? More are feeling the reality of climate change through extreme events they never expected to face.

When did Rachel Carson write The Silent Spring? John Chafee made climate change clear to the United States Senate in 1986. Schools have taught about the ‘green-house effect’ in our public schools across Australia since the 1980s. Often through the humanities!  The science of ecology has become more and more important from the 1960s on.

Germany, a democracy, led the way thirty years ago to decrease then end the use of coal. Government, business, workers came together. They cooperated so no one was left behind. There was government investment in the process of change. Workers were able to get jobs in nearby developing chemical industries. This trinity is needed for us all.

In the English-speaking developed world today which are the three nations that have been the worst in their development of government policies, plans and investment to face the facts of change, according to Reese Halter? USA by far is the worst. Australia is not far behind. Then, there is the UK, although they have moved towards clean energy faster than USA or Australia. See Reece Halter’s analysis for ‘Earth Day’. [Below here] And, my blog ‘Complexity and Stability’ – June 15th 2020 – and the work of the Australian physicist and ecologist, Robert May, Baron May of Oxford, the UK’s Chief Scientist from 1995 – 2000.

‘From Sydney to Princeton, to the job of the UK’s Chief Scientist. Lord Bob May of Oxford brought physics into biology, moved from there into ecology with the knowledge of mathematics that helped to prove the essential connection between stability and complexity. He helped the UK to accept climate change and make the move towards clean energy. He showed the problem of relying on economists, too often tied to ideology.’

Australia’s national public broadcaster.

The Australian Broadcast Corporation’s Radio National’s the Science Show with Robyn Williams, who has presented it since 1975, tackled so much.  On Saturday April 17th 2021, the program first went to Mars with Dr David Flannery. Next, Robyn Williams introduced The Climate Cure, by Tim Flannery, showing how sea kelp, ‘forests’ deep in oceans, could be the carbon sinks the planet needs to take carbon from the atmosphere.

One of Australia’s leading science communicators.

Tim Flannery of the Climate Change Council has not given up. He gave us warning with The Future Eaters in 1994. In 2005 he wrote The Weather Makers. For a little time, between 2007 and 2012, Australia began to decrease its carbon footprint. In 2011 the Climate Change Commission was set up as a statutory independent body to talk to all Australians so that the science was made accessible. How can voters use their precious votes thoughtfully if they don’t have access to the knowledge needed to inform their decisions? The Commission was bringing us all together: experts were communicating clearly, sharing the evidence with us all.

In 2013, when the first of these three national Federal Coalition governments came in, the Australian Climate Commission was abolished by the Prime Minister, Tony Abbott, who insisted ‘Climate change is crap’ All the work being done to connect with the public was reversed. And it was made worse in 2015. A review of our national curriculum for our schools by reviewers chosen by the Minister for Education, Christopher Pyne, decreased interdisciplinary connections, identified as vital by the Deans of the Schools of Education in 2000. ACARA now formalised that destructive separation of STEM versus HASS. A Seaweed Festival connecting science and the arts is below. See it.

We knew, and know, that history comes into everything. Look at this terrible history of climate change responses in Australia because too few of us have cared enough to make our governments act for the future. Let’s never forget, in all of this, the role of ‘The Carbon Club’, a joint Australian/USA combination of mining corporations and the Institute of Public Affairs denying climate change. Fortunately, enough Australians were not prepared to lose all the expertise the Commission had provided for the public. So, a truly independent council was established.

The Climate Council was founded in 2013 by tens of thousands of Australians to create a new, independent and community-funded organisation in response to the abolition of the Australian Climate Commission. More info? See our FAQs

President Biden is now caring about climate change in USA. But the market-driven Federal Coalition Australian government has, in its place, a Climate Change Authority. What matters is the choice made by Australia’s Prime Minister to lead it. He has chosen, as Chair, a man with a background in oil and gas! It is a bit like President Trump handing power to a Secretary of the American Environmental Protection Agency who had no commitment to America’s great public National Parks or the sacred lands of the Native Americans. Australia’s latest Coalition Prime Minister is insisting on a gas-led ‘recovery’ that will suit the fossil fuel mining industries like Santos and Woodside. At the same time the Indian magnate, Mr Adani, is being enabled to go ahead with the Carmichael coal mine. This Prime Minister says zero emissions by 2050 is his ‘preferred’ position. But is he now unlocking gas in South Australia, offering us $2 billion to do it?

Tim Flannery offers us an avenue for capturing carbon.

Seaweed a hope to capture carbon and help cool the planet

with Robyn Williams


Seaweed a strong hope for drawdown of atmospheric carbon.

Tim Flannery describes the promise of seaweed as a scalable option for drawing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.


Festival reveals the beauty, wonder and potential of seaweed.
Festival reveals the beauty, wonder and potential of seaweed

Seaweed can be used for food, for fertiliser and may even save us from climate change.

But from this hope for the future we need to face this global estimation from Reece Halter.


Reese Halter looks at some key indicators of the health of the planet.
Key indicators of planetary health getting worse

Robyn Williams has not ignored the question of the future for workers in coal. This statement by a union leader gives worrying information for us ‘down under’. Most corporations are based in the northern hemisphere. ‘Capital’ can move quickly from place to place after we have been squeezed dry. That is clearly evident already. So many corporations set out to avoid or evade their responsibilities to pay their dues to us.


Do trade unions speak to scientists?

As working environments change, trade unions help their membership work through changes to their industries. Knowing what’s coming and what’s inevitable is helpful. Ross Garnaut has suggestions for regional industries in his book ‘Super Power’, what Australia is capable of doing.

Today’s program has ranged widely. The Science Show has made many of the connections we need as voters. Our decisions make the difference, for good or ill, for the future for children being born across the world today.


Has the media failed to tell the truth?
Climate change is f*%#ing terrifying. Has the media failed to tell the truth?

A slowdown in the Earth’s heating has not even started! Is there hope? Journalist, Jo Chandler, reads from her essay in The Griffith Review.  Jo Chandler’s decision about how to retain hope in the face of all the frightening signs of media manipulation matters very much for our citizens. Rupert Murdoch owns or controls almost 90% of Australia’s commercial media. Does he intend to ‘stream’ his Fox News ‘down under’? We face so many powerful corporations using tactics to defer action about global warming until they have made all they can from fossil fuels.

We need investigative journalists with the courage of Jo Chandler.

We cannot afford to give up hope for the children’s sake.

Now! What of a fourth F?

Flora. Fauna. Fungi. And now Frogs.

In Adelaide, World Frog Day was being celebrated. I decided to focus on these animals that tell us about the health of our waterways. ‘Habitat loss, climate change and pollution are large causes of declining frog populations around the world. Australia, like many other countries, has experienced dramatic declines in frog species with more than 40 Australian frog species threatened with extinction. Want to know more? Hop into our Envirodome tomorrow and learn more about these fascinating animals.’

Frogs are important indicators of the health of many ecosystems. Think of our rivers and lakes. How many are now polluted? What is the state of the rivers in Europe, in Africa, in Asia – I think of the Mekong – and the Americas? Australia has allowed its major eastern public waterway, the Murray-Darling, to be marketed for sale for licences! Irrigation upstream affects downstream. So, a major part of the waterway, the River Darling is dry in parts. Too many Murray cod are gone. Too little flows to the sea. Salinity will come further upriver. But, it is not only a decline in the voice of the frog in our rivers and lakes. Think of the decline in fish stocks in rivers and lakes. And in the oceans. Visit the blogs about the work of Dr Sylvia Earle. And the need for Marine Protected Areas and the need to check industrial fishing.

Children can’t vote. it is the parents, citizens in democracies, who vote. Children know the climate crises we are facing and march, ‘strike,’ to try to make us face it. They ask us to care about the future.

Too many of us were taught not to see connections, to think of subjects as ‘silos’. That blinkered approach has helped corporations that do not want us to make connections. They don’t want us to connect what they are selling with what is happening. That was true of tobacco companies and asbestos companies. Profit was everything. It is as true now of those selling artificial fertilisers, plastics, and those mining and selling fossil fuels. Fracking the land for LNG. Pesticides. Think of logging old forests!

I have chosen this article from 2018 in ‘Science made Simple’. Three years on, in Australia, I fear that too few care enough. It might be the same elsewhere. A Canadian Conservative Society has just said there is no climate crisis! And they live near the Arctic! The protection of Australia’s major eastern side public waterway, the Murray-Darling system has been hamstrung by major political decisions made without any thought of consequences down river. The efforts to keep water for the environment is bedevilled by narrow state-based political attitudes. The impact of upstream irrigation. Add that to the royalties they get from coal and LNG gas wells on agricultural land and in a forest in NSW and fracking in the NT.

Do you know what happens when we decrease the bio-diversity of our lands and oceans? Read about what happened in India in the 1980s. Add the impact of global warming into the mix of the indifference in too many governments. This article is comprehensive. Provided for students in the UK, we need it in Australia. Our environment and bio-diversity is under threat in Australia. We have no up-to-date national standards legislation, though we have the report by Graeme Samuels about what we need to do as a nation. The Coalition government intends to hand regulation ‘as a one-stop-shop’ to the States. And ‘one-stop-shop’ means market first! That’s trouble!

HomeCurriculumBiology › 3 Reasons Why Frogs Are So Important to the Ecosystem

3 Reasons Why Frogs Are So Important to the Ecosystem

December 13, 2018

by guest blogger Karin, who loves finding out animal facts! This is a UK production. You can find more animal facts here.

White lipped tree frog CC-SA Bignoter

‘From their sticky toes to their eyes that seem to pop, frogs have hopped into a central place in fairytales and science alike. Children are perpetually delighted by Kermit the Frog and scientists are still unlocking the secrets of these mysterious green amphibians. If you have ever caught a frog, you have probably been mesmerized by their almost otherworldly appearance. Frogs really are amazing animals – did you know that consisting of about 90% of the class of Amphibia, frogs are vital to a healthy and functioning ecosystem? Check out these 3 reasons why frogs are so important to the ecosystem.

1. Frogs Are an Indicator Species

How is a frog like a canary? This isn’t just a silly question. Historically, miners would take canaries and other birds into the mines with them. If there was poisonous gas in the underground tunnels, the canaries (unfortunately) would die, and the miners would know that they needed to leave the toxic tunnels right away. In a similar way, frogs act as a natural bioindicator, which means that they measure the health of the environment.

Because frogs are amphibians, they can live on both land and water. In fact, the word “amphibian” is Greek for “two lives.” Frogs also have very sensitive skin and pores, making them extra sensitive to the health of both land and in the water.

What is alarming is that frogs are increasingly showing signs of deformities and mutations, such as extra limbs, missing limbs, deformed tails, and missing eyes. Scientists have also discovered that frogs are dying off at an alarming rate. What is even more alarming is that frogs have been around for at least 250 million years, and amphibians have been around for over 350 million years. This means that frogs have lived through 3–THREE–different mass extinctions, including the one that killed all the dinosaurs. Despite living millions of years and surviving even the extinction of the dinosaurs, frogs are now dying off in record numbers. In fact, nearly ⅓ of amphibian species are threatened with extinction. They simply are unable to handle the current environmental stressors, which is a desperate signal that the earth needs help combating pollution and other environmental stressors. 

2. The Food Chain Would Crumble Without Frogs

Frogs go through several stages in their life cycle. At each cycle, frogs play a crucial role in the food chain, both as predator and prey. Specifically, as eggs, frogs provide food for spiders and wasps; and as tadpoles, they are food for shrimp dragonfly nymphs, and shrimp. As adult frogs, they provide valuable food for birds, lizards, snakes, monkeys, and more.

Additionally, frogs are a critical part of the food chain in more active ways as well. As tadpoles, they feed on algae, which helps filter and keep our water supplies clean. Full-grown frogs feed on insects, such as moths, grasshoppers, flies, crickets, mosquitoes, and spiders.

Female Mosquito Public Domain LadyofHats

Indeed, frogs help keep insects from wreaking havoc on crops. For example, in the 1980s, India exported large amounts of frogs to France as food, leading the population of frogs to drop dramatically. This led to an increase in insect population that decimated crops and fields. Realizing how crucial frogs were to a healthy ecosystem, the Indian government finally banned the export of frogs.

Frogs also help keep insects from spreading diseases, such as Zika, malaria, dengue, and more. Adult frogs eat mosquitoes and help keep the insect population under control. Importantly, tadpoles also eat many insect larvae that make their home in pools, puddles, ditches, swamps, and other water-filled containers. The death of frogs would send a catastrophic ripple through the ecosystem and compromise human health around the globe.

3. Frogs are Nature’s Medicine
Red-eyed tree frog CC-BY-SA Charles J Sharp

Researchers have found that frogs are important for various medicinal purposes. In fact, scientists have found over 200 beneficial alkaloids in amphibian skin. One of these can be used as a painkiller that is 200 times stronger than morphine and without morphine addictive qualities. Frog skin secretions can also be used as a powerful antibiotic, and some frogs produce peptides that can help heal cuts and bruises and can even heal organs after surgery. And that’s not all. Frog secretion can also provide treatment for heart attacks, depression, strokes, seizures, Alzheimer’s, and cancer. In Australia, the red eyed tree-frog and its relatives can even reduce compounds that scientist believe can prevent HIV.


Because frogs occupy the front lines of Earth’s ecosystems, they act as a lens to the ways we understand climate change, pollution, conservation, evolution and a host of other profoundly important issues. Beyond being bioindicators, frogs also act as a “conveyer belts” by transferring energy from invertebrates to predators higher up the food chain.  Frogs also control pests, provide medicines, and have a social value that inspires art and culture alike.  They are extraordinary animals that add not only diversity but also beauty to our Earth. Their disappearance would radically rewire ecosystems all over the Earth and change the way humans inhabit their many environments.’

 Author Profile: Karin holds a master’s degree in English and rhetoric and has been a university writing tutor and writing instructor for many years. She loves researching, reading, and writing for An admitted adrenaline junkie, she married her skydiving instructor and loves to go adventuring with him and their 4 kids.


Marent, Thomas. Frog: A Photographic Portrait. New York, NY: Penguin, 2008.

Rowley, Jodi, Dr. “Can Frogs Help Combat the Zika Virus?Australian Museum. February 23, 2016. Accessed: November 25, 2018.

Now, here is the voice of Mike Tyler, on the ABC Radio National’s Science Show. Professor Mike Tyler was at the University of Adelaide, Australia’s special ‘frog man’. He did so much to try to wake Australians to the often irreversible results of the destruction of habitat.

1 Aug 2020  This is the final of four excerpts from Mike Tyler’s broadcasts on The Science Show. Mike died in March 2020. Vale Mike Tyler.

Singing frogs bid farewell to Mike Tyler – The Science Show … › radionational › programs › sin…